Water Management

Water Management

Irrigation and Water requirement

  • In irrigation you should know how much water required for specific plants.
  • What is the water capacity of the soil.
  • How much moisture mother nature is providing.
  • What the evaporation rate is.

Water Planning

You can find out water requirement for your land.
Quantity of water (1acre)= Area(cm2) × delta of crop(cm) + certain loss
(evaporation loss, conveyance loss etc) approx.

Water Requirement per Acre

  • 27,154 Gallons of water will cover one acre. One inch deep.
  • Discounting runoff and evaporation for many crops, this is considered an average weekly requirement to maintain soil moisture.

Flood irrigation:

  • This uses the most water. Generally for crops like paddy, sugarcane, maize, wheat, etc.

Sprinkler/Rain Gun’s:

  • This uses only 30–50% of water used in flood irrigation.
  • This is the best alternative for crops like paddy, sugarcane, maize etc.

Drip irrigation:

  • This uses only 10–20% of water compare for flood irrigation.
  • This basically supplies the amount of water required for the plant very effectively.
  • This is best suitable for trees and shrubs, Vegetable Crops etc.,

Water Conservation Specialist in Karnataka

Shivananda Kalave – Water method
Kalave, Sirsi Taluk Uttara Kannada District
08384-243455
9448023715

Water Conservation -Kalave

Ayyappa Masagi
Water Literacy Foundation
347, Kallappa Layout
Amruthahalli, Sahakarnagar Post,
Bangalore 560092
Ayappa 9448379497
Sujatha 9740556444

Water recharge and conservation are the need of hour.
  • If it is not  done then we will lose 16-18 lakhs liter of water per acre and 3-4  tons of soil per acre every year.
  • I propose to save 30-40% of total rain that would be adequate for our nation to become water sustainable.

Masagi’s concept to capture flood water is simple:

  • Collect, filter  and store rainwater underground.
  • “Today, most farm lands are flat  and when rain falls, water doesn’t stay.
  • The surface soil can only absorb a little amount of water,” he says.
  • We cannot trap all rainwater but just capturing 20% would make the farmers self-sufficient.

Masagi explain that every farmland should have 3 ups and 3 downs.

  • This implies if there is heavy rains then expect the crop yield from upper regions.
  • With scanty rains expect the crop yield in low-lying areas.
  • Lastly if very less rains then expect crop yield from the lowest level.

In total, we have four water namely surface water, sub-surface or sub-soil water, deep-soil water and ground water.

  • To recharge all these four water we need pit-based rainwater harvesting systems.
  • It is the structure made of boulders, sand, mud and debris.
  • When it rains water moves through the debris and sand.
  • Once the soil is saturated the water will bubble back up through the sand and debris to form natural springs.
  • In this way it slowly charges all four water aquifers. It also prevents water evaporation.

  • Farmers must make compartments (bunds) on their land depending upon the flow of water and slope.
  • According to the slope land extent 4 acres, 3 acres, 2 acres and 1 acre compartment bunding to be done.

If the land is completely flat then make the bund of

  • 90 *180 meter,
  • 80 *170 meter
  • 70*150 meter
  • 80*60 meter respectively.

Approximate cost would be Rs. 2500 or make pits of size 1m*1m*1m deep.

  • 40 pits are required for 1 acre.

  • Pit must be made in zigzag.
  • Distance between pits must be 20 feet.
  • Pits must be filled with 90% debris or boulders or 40 MM gravels and 10% sand plus fine gravels.
  • In this way every drop of water is restored in the land and not allowed to flow out because it shall be conserved in the pits.
  • These are permanent structures.
  • Approximate cost would be Rs. 20,000 per acre.
  • It is one time investment and later on no monitoring or maintenance required.

Small and marginal farmers can hold the rain water in their farmland by making deep burrows.

  • They could also make ‘patta bunding’.
  • It costs around Rs. 700 per acre but should be constructed every year.

According to the land slope, the size varies from

  • 60 feet length x 60 feet width
  • 60 feet length x 40 feet width
  • 60 feet length x 30 feet width.
  • Minimum 6 patta bundings to be constructed.
  • Based on your experience and customer testimonials with this crop yield is assured.
  • These simple bunds can be constructed by the farmers themselves with locally available materials and labor.

Other measures are nala bund construction, stream water harvesting, tree based agriculture, lakes construction and direct bore well recharging.

 

Besides, I have improvised traditional drip irrigation with sub-surface drip irrigation. The in-line lateral pipe is installed 7 inches below the surface level. Dripper should be covered with plastic paper (polyurethane sheet). Using this system 1000 liters of water is sufficient for 1 acre horticulture crops per week.

People who harvest rain water and grey water will only survive in the future. If we harvest rain and grey water then we can celebrate festival everyday, if we allow it to flow then we have to face the droughts.

  • Traditional drip irrigation with sub-surface drip irrigation.
  • The in-line lateral pipe is installed 7 inches below the surface level.
  • Dripper should be covered with plastic paper (polyurethane sheet).
  • Using this system 1000 liters of water is sufficient for 1 acre horticulture crops per week.
  • People who harvest rain water and grey water will only survive in the future.
  • If we harvest rain and grey water then we can celebrate festival everyday, if we allow it to flow then we have to face the droughts.